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Branch of medicine

Dentistry
A dentist treats a patient with the help of a dental assistant.
Occupation
Occupation type
Profession
Activity sectors
Health care, Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Medicine, Pharmacology, Cosmesis, Surgery
Description
Competencies
  • Sub-Millimeter Surgical Dexterity
  • Knowledge of human health, disease, pathology, and anatomy
  • Communication/Interpersonal Skills
  • Analytical Skills
  • Critical Thinking
  • Empathy/Professionalism
Education required
Dental Degree, Medical Degree
Fields of
employment
  • Private practices
  • Primary care clinics
  • Hospitals
Related jobs
ICD-9-CM23-24
MeSHD003813

Upper Gi Endoscopy Procedure Acid Reflux Heartburn Medicine (⭐️ Causes) | Upper Gi Endoscopy Procedure Acid Reflux Treatmentshow to Upper Gi Endoscopy Procedure Acid Reflux for Dentistry, also known as dental medicine and oral medicine, is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.[1] Although primarily associated with teeth among the general public, the field of dentistry or dental medicine is not limited to teeth but includes other aspects of the craniofacial complex including the temporomandibular joint and other supporting, muscular, lymphatic, nervous, vascular, and anatomical structures.

Dentistry is often also understood to subsume the now largely defunct medical specialty of stomatology (the study of the mouth and its disorders and diseases) for which reason the two terms are used interchangeably in certain regions.[where?]

Dental treatments are carried out by a dental team, which often consists of a dentist and dental auxiliaries (dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, as well as dental therapists). Most dentists either work in private practices (primary care), dental hospitals or (secondary care) institutions (prisons, armed forces bases, etc.).

The history of dentistry is almost as ancient as the history of humanity and civilization with the earliest evidence dating from 7000 BC. Remains from the early Harappan periods of the Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300 BC) show evidence of teeth having been drilled dating back 9,000 years.[2] It is thought that dental surgery was the first specialization from medicine.[3] The modern movement of evidence-based dentistry calls for the use of high-quality scientific evidence to guide decision-making.

Contents

Terminology[edit]

The term dentistry comes from dentist, which comes from French dentiste, which comes from the French and Latin words for tooth.[4] The term for the associated scientific study of teeth is odontology (from Ancient Greek ὀδούς (odoús, "")) – the study of the structure, development, and abnormalities of the teeth.

Dental treatmentUpper Gi Endoscopy Procedure Acid Reflux Natural Remedies (🔥 Heartburn During Pregnancy) | Upper Gi Endoscopy Procedure Acid Reflux 23+ Home Remedieshow to Upper Gi Endoscopy Procedure Acid Reflux for [edit]

Upper Gi Endoscopy Procedure Acid Reflux 7 Natural GERD (👍 Heartburn Relief) | Upper Gi Endoscopy Procedure Acid Reflux Diethow to Upper Gi Endoscopy Procedure Acid Reflux for Dentistry usually encompasses practices related to the oral cavity.[5] According to the World Health Organization, oral diseases are major public health problems due to their high incidence and prevalence across the globe, with the disadvantaged affected more than other socio-economic groups.[6]

The majority of dental treatments are carried out to prevent or treat the two most common oral diseases which are dental caries (tooth decay) and periodontal disease (gum disease or pyorrhea). Common treatments involve the restoration of teeth, extraction or surgical removal of teeth, scaling and root planing, endodontic root canal treatment and cosmetic dentistry[7]

All dentists in the United States undergo at least three years of undergraduate studies, but nearly all complete a bachelor''s first dental school in Bainbridge, Ohio, and helped to establish dentistry as a health profession. It opened on 21 February 1828, and today is a dental museum.[14] The first dental college, Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, opened in Baltimore, Maryland, US in 1840. The second in the United States was the Ohio College of Dental Surgery, established in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1845.[15] The Philadelphia College of Dental Surgery followed in 1852.[16] In 1907, Temple University accepted a bid to incorporate the school.

Studies show that dentists that graduated from different countries,[17] or even from different dental schools in one country,[18] may make different clinical decisions for the same clinical condition. For example, dentists that graduated from Israeli dental schools may recommend the removal of asymptomatic impacted third molar (wisdom teeth) more often than dentists that graduated from Latin American or Eastern European dental schools.[19]

In the United Kingdom, the 1878 British Dentists Act and 1879 Dentists Register limited the title of "" and "" to qualified and registered practitioners.[20][21] However, others could legally describe themselves as "" or "".[22] The practice of dentistry in the United Kingdom became fully regulated with the 1921 Dentists Act, which required the registration of anyone practising dentistry.[23] The British Dental Association, formed in 1880 with Sir John Tomes as president, played a major role in prosecuting dentists practising illegally.[20] Dentists in the United Kingdom are now regulated by the General Dental Council.

In Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Finland, Sweden, Brazil, Chile, the United States, and Canada, a dentist is a healthcare professional qualified to practice dentistry after graduating with a degree of either Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or Doctor of Dental Medicine (DMD). This is equivalent to the Bachelor of Dental Surgery/Baccalaureus Dentalis Chirurgiae (BDS, BDent, BChD, BDSc) that is awarded in the UK and British Commonwealth countries. In most western countries, to become a qualified dentist one must usually complete at least four years of postgraduate study;[24] within the European Union the education has to be at least five years. Dentists usually complete between five and eight years of post-secondary education before practising. Though not mandatory, many dentists choose to complete an internship or residency focusing on specific aspects of dental care after they have received their dental degree.

Specialties [edit]

Main article: Specialty (dentistry)

Some dentists undertake further training after their initial degree in order to specialize. Exactly which subjects are recognized by dental registration bodies varies according to location. Examples include:

the 1 last update 09 Jul 2020 HistoryHistory[edit][edit]

See also: History of dental treatments
"", c. 1790.
Farmer at the dentist, Johann Liss, c. 1616–17

Tooth decay was low in pre-agricultural societies, but the advent of farming society about 10,000 years ago correlated with an increase in tooth decay (cavities).[28] An infected tooth from Italy partially cleaned with flint tools, between 13,820 and 14,160 years old, represents the oldest known dentistry,[29] although a 2017 study suggests that 130,000 years ago the Neanderthals already used rudimentary dentistry tools.[30] The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) has yielded evidence of dentistry being practised as far back as 7000 BC.[31] An IVC site in Mehrgarh indicates that this form of dentistry involved curing tooth related disorders with bow drills operated, perhaps, by skilled bead crafters.[2] The reconstruction of this ancient form of dentistry showed that the methods used were reliable and effective.[32] The earliest dental filling, made of beeswax, was discovered in Slovenia and dates from 6500 years ago.[33] Dentistry was practiced in prehistoric Malta, as evidenced by a skull which had an abscess lanced from the root of a tooth dating back the 1 last update 09 Jul 2020 to around 2500 BC.[34] Tooth decay was low in pre-agricultural societies, but the advent of farming society about 10,000 years ago correlated with an increase in tooth decay (cavities).[28] An infected tooth from Italy partially cleaned with flint tools, between 13,820 and 14,160 years old, represents the oldest known dentistry,[29] although a 2017 study suggests that 130,000 years ago the Neanderthals already used rudimentary dentistry tools.[30] The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) has yielded evidence of dentistry being practised as far back as 7000 BC.[31] An IVC site in Mehrgarh indicates that this form of dentistry involved curing tooth related disorders with bow drills operated, perhaps, by skilled bead crafters.[2] The reconstruction of this ancient form of dentistry showed that the methods used were reliable and effective.[32] The earliest dental filling, made of beeswax, was discovered in Slovenia and dates from 6500 years ago.[33] Dentistry was practiced in prehistoric Malta, as evidenced by a skull which had an abscess lanced from the root of a tooth dating back to around 2500 BC.[34]

An ancient Sumerian text describes a ""/wiki/Tooth_worm""Tooth worm"" as the cause of dental caries.[35] Evidence of this belief has also been found in ancient India, Egypt, Japan, and China. The legend of the worm is also found in the Homeric Hymns,[36] and as late as the 14th century AD the surgeon Guy de Chauliac still promoted the belief that worms cause tooth decay.[37]

Upper Gi Endoscopy Procedure Acid Reflux Tips (🔴 Natural Remedies For) | Upper Gi Endoscopy Procedure Acid Reflux 9 Natural Remedieshow to Upper Gi Endoscopy Procedure Acid Reflux for Recipes for the treatment of toothache, infections and loose teeth are spread throughout the Ebers Papyrus, Kahun Papyri, Brugsch Papyrus, and Hearst papyrus of Ancient Egypt.[38] The Edwin Smith Papyrus, written in the 17th century BC but which may reflect previous manuscripts from as early as 3000 BC, discusses the treatment of dislocated or fractured jaws.[38][39] In the 18th century BC, the Code of Hammurabi referenced dental extraction twice as it related to punishment.[40] Examination of the remains of some ancient Egyptians and Greco-Romans reveals early attempts at dental prosthetics.[41] However, it is possible the prosthetics were prepared after death for aesthetic reasons.[38]

Ancient Greek scholars Hippocrates and Aristotle wrote about dentistry, including the eruption pattern of teeth, treating decayed teeth and gum disease, extracting teeth with forceps, and using wires to stabilize loose teeth and fractured jaws.[42] Some say the first use of dental appliances or bridges comes from the Etruscans from as early as 700 BC.[43] In ancient Egypt, Hesy-Ra is the first named "" (greatest of the teeth). The Egyptians bound replacement teeth together with gold wire. Roman medical writer Cornelius Celsus wrote extensively of oral diseases as well as dental treatments such as narcotic-containing emollients and astringents.[44][45] The earliest dental for 1 last update 09 Jul 2020 amalgams were first documented in a Tang Dynasty medical text written by the Chinese physician Su Kung in 659, and appeared in Germany in 1528.[46][47] Ancient Greek scholars Hippocrates and Aristotle wrote about dentistry, including the eruption pattern of teeth, treating decayed teeth and gum disease, extracting teeth with forceps, and using wires to stabilize loose teeth and fractured jaws.[42] Some say the first use of dental appliances or bridges comes from the Etruscans from as early as 700 BC.[43] In ancient Egypt, Hesy-Ra is the first named "" (greatest of the teeth). The Egyptians bound replacement teeth together with gold wire. Roman medical writer Cornelius Celsus wrote extensively of oral diseases as well as dental treatments such as narcotic-containing emollients and astringents.[44][45] The earliest dental amalgams were first documented in a Tang Dynasty medical text written by the Chinese physician Su Kung in 659, and appeared in Germany in 1528.[46][47]

During the Islamic Golden Age Dentistry was discussed in several famous books of medicine such as The Canon in medicine written by Avicenna and Al-Tasreef by Al-Zahrawi who is considered the greatest surgeon of the Middle ages,[48] Avicenna said that jaw fracture should be reduced according to the occlusal guidance of the teeth; this principle is still valid in modern times. while Al-Zahrawi made a lot of surgical tools that resemble the modern tools.

Historically, dental extractions have been used to treat a variety of illnesses. During the Middle Ages and throughout the 19th century, dentistry was not a profession in itself, and often dental procedures were performed by barbers or general physicians. Barbers usually limited their practice to extracting teeth which alleviated pain and associated chronic tooth infection. Instruments used for dental extractions date back several centuries. In the 14th century, Guy de Chauliac most probably invented the dental pelican[49] (resembling a pelican''tis not easie to find any wanting or decayed: and therefore in Egypt, where one Man practised but one Operation, or the Diseases but of single Parts, it must needs be a barren Profession to confine unto that of drawing of Teeth, and little better than to have been Tooth-drawer unto King Pyrrhus, who had but two in his Head.

The French surgeon Pierre Fauchard became known as the "". Despite the limitations of the primitive surgical instruments during the late 17th and early 18th century, Fauchard was a highly skilled surgeon who made remarkable improvisations of dental instruments, often adapting tools from watchmakers, jewelers and even barbers, that he thought could be used in dentistry. He introduced dental fillings as treatment for dental cavities. He asserted that sugar derivate acids like tartaric acid were responsible for dental decay, and also suggested that tumors surrounding the teeth and in the gums could appear in the later stages of tooth decay.[53][54]

Panoramic radiograph of historic dental implants, made 1978

Fauchard was the pioneer of dental prosthesis, and he discovered many methods to replace lost teeth. He suggested that substitutes could be made from carved blocks of ivory or bone. He also introduced dental braces, although they were initially made of gold, he discovered that the teeth position could be corrected as the teeth would follow the pattern of the wires. Waxed linen or silk threads were usually employed to fasten the braces. His contributions to the world of dental science consist primarily of his 1728 publication Le the 1 last update 09 Jul 2020 chirurgien dentiste or The Surgeon Dentist. The French text included "".[53][54] Fauchard was the pioneer of dental prosthesis, and he discovered many methods to replace lost teeth. He suggested that substitutes could be made from carved blocks of ivory or bone. He also introduced dental braces, although they were initially made of gold, he discovered that the teeth position could be corrected as the teeth would follow the pattern of the wires. Waxed linen or silk threads were usually employed to fasten the braces. His contributions to the world of dental science consist primarily of his 1728 publication Le chirurgien dentiste or The Surgeon Dentist. The French text included "".[53][54]

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